What is a Kidney Stone ?
Kidney Stone Causes, Symptoms, Treatments Your kidneys remove waste and fluid from your blood to form urine. Sometimes, once you have an excessive amount of of certain wastes and not enough fluid in your blood, these wastes can build up and stay together in your kidneys. These clumps of waste are called kidney stones.
What are the causes of kidney stones?
Anyone can get a urinary calculus , but some people are more likely than others to possess them. Kidney stones also are more common in non-Hispanic White race than in people of other ethnicities. you’ll even be more likely to possess kidney stones if:-
- You have had kidney stones before.
- Someone in your family has had kidney stones.
- You don’t drink enough water.
- You follow a diet high in protein, sodium and/or sugar.
- You are overweight or obese.
- You have had gastric bypass surgery or another intestinal surgery.
- You have polycystic renal disorder or another cystic renal disorder .
- You have a particular condition that causes your urine to contain high levels of cystine, oxalate, acid or calcium.
- You have a condition that causes swelling or irritation in your bowel or your joints.
- You take certain medicines, like diuretics (water pills) or calcium-based antacids.
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What are the symptoms of kidney stones?
If you’ve got a really small urinary calculus that moves easily through your tract , you’ll not have any symptoms, and should never know that you simply had a urinary calculus .
If you’ve got a bigger urinary calculus , you’ll notice any of the subsequent symptoms:
- Pain while urinating
- Blood in your urine
- Sharp pain in your back or lower abdomen
- Nausea and vomiting
What are the treatments for kidney stones?
The treatment for a urinary calculus depends on the dimensions of the stone, what it’s made from , whether it’s causing pain and whether it’s blocking your tract . To answer these questions and to work out the proper treatment for you, your doctor might ask you to possess a urine test, biopsy , x-ray and/or CT scan. A CT scan sometimes uses contrast dye. If you’ve got ever had a drag with contrast dye, make certain to inform your doctor about it before you’ve got your CT scan.
If your test results show that your urinary calculus is little , your doctor may tell you to require pain medicine and drink many fluids to assist push the stone through your tract . If your urinary calculus is large, or if it’s blocking your tract , additional treatment could also be necessary.
One treatment option is blast wave lithotripsy. This treatment uses shock waves to interrupt up the kidney stones into small pieces. After the treatment, the tiny pieces of the urinary calculus will undergo your tract and out of your body together with your urine. This treatment usually takes 45 minutes to at least one hour and should be done under general anaesthesia , which suggests you’ll be asleep and unable to feel pain.
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Another treatment option is ureteroscopy. This treatment is additionally done under general anaesthesia . The doctor uses an extended tool shaped sort of a tube to seek out and take away the stone or to seek out and break the stone into small pieces. If the stone is little , the doctor could also be ready to remove it. If it’s large, it’s going to got to be broken into pieces. during this case, a laser are going to be wont to break the stone into pieces that are sufficiently small to undergo your tract .
nephrolithotomy is required to get rid of a urinary calculus . During the surgery, a tube are going to be inserted directly into your kidney to get rid of the stone. you’ll got to be within the hospital for 2 to 3 days to possess and get over this treatment.
How am i able to prevent kidney stones?
The best thanks to prevent most kidney stones is to drink enough fluids a day . most of the people should drink eight to 12 cups of fluid per day. If you’ve got renal disorder and wish to limit fluids, ask your doctor what proportion fluid you ought to have every day . Limiting sodium and animal protein (meat, eggs) in your diet can also help to stop kidney stones. If your doctor can determine what your urinary calculus is formed of, he or she could also be ready to offer you specific diet recommendations to assist prevent future kidney stones.
If you’ve got a health condition that creates you more likely to possess kidney stones, your doctor might tell you to require medicine to treat this condition.
Types of kidney stones
- Calcium stones are the foremost common sort of kidney stones. they’re usually made from calcium and oxalate (a natural chemical found in most foods), but are sometimes made from calcium and phosphate.
Uric acid stones form when your urine is usually too acidic.
- Struvite stones can happen once you have certain sorts of tract infections during which bacteria make ammonia that builds up in your urine. Struvite stones are made from magnesium, ammonium and phosphate.
- Cystine stones are made from a chemical that your body makes naturally, called cystine. Cystine stones are very rare, and happen in people that have a genetic disease that causes cystine to leak from the kidneys into the urine.
- Kidney stones are often as small as a grain of sand or as large sometimes larger than–a pearl. they will stay in your kidneys or travel through your ureters (the tubes that go from your kidneys to your bladder), and out of your body together with your urine. When a urinary calculus moves through your ureters and out your urethra together with your urine, it’s called passing a urinary calculus . A urinary calculus also can grind to a halt in your tract and block urine from getting through.
- once you pass a urinary calculus or an outsized urinary calculus blocks the flow of your urine, it are often very painful.